Smoking can have a negative effect on men’s fertility. The sperm count in men who smoke is 20% lower than in non-smokers. So smoking affects sperm quality in men.
For example, we can assess an example of infertility in men. Naturally, the number of sperm in one ml of semen is about 20 million. Imagine a man who had 22 million sperm per milliliter of semen at the beginning of his marriage. He had a child one year after his marriage and started smoking a year later. After a few years, the couple decides to have a second child but fails. After various studies, it has been shown that the number of male sperm has decreased to 12 million per ml. In the couple, smoking cigarettes has led to secondary infertility in men. Learn more about sperm problems and infertility: Sperm Problems in Male Infertility
In addition to having a negative effect on men’s fertility, smoking also affects women’s fertility, so smoking can reduce women’s fertility by 30 percent.
Learn more about effects of smoking on fertility: Effect of smoking on fertility
Alcohol consumption can cause endocrine disruptions so that blood testosterone levels in men remain low for hours after alcohol consumption.
Low testosterone levels in men reduce libido, erectile dysfunction, enlarge breasts, shrink testicles, reduce sperm count, and ultimately infertility. On the other hand, alcohol consumption activates the aromatase enzyme that converts testosterone to estrogen. Increasing estrogen levels in men can cause obesity and decrease sexual function in men, which has a negative effect on their fertility.